Q. 1. What is the chief end of man?
A. Man’s chief end is to glorify God, [a] and to enjoy him for ever. [b][a]. Ps. 86:9; Isa. 60:21; Rom. 11:36; 1 Cor. 6:20; 10:31; Rev.
Q. 2. What rule hath God given to direct us how we may glorify and enjoy him?
A. The Word of God, which is contained in the Scriptures of the Old and New Testaments, [a] is the only rule to direct us how we may glorify and enjoy him. [b][a]. Matt. 19:4-5 with Gen. 2:24; Luke 24:27, 44; 1 Cor. 2:13;
Q. 3. What do the Scriptures principally teach?
A. The Scriptures principally teach what man is to believe concerning God, [a] and what duty God requires of man [b].[a]. Gen. 1:1; John 5:39; 20:31; Rom. 10:17; 2 Tim. 3:15 [b]. Deut. 10:12-13; Josh. 1:8; Ps. 119:105; Mic. 6:8; 2 Tim.
Q. 4. What is God?
A. God is a Spirit [a], infinite [b], eternal [c], and unchangeable [d] in his being [e], wisdom [f], power [g], holiness [h], justice [i], goodness [j], and truth [k].[a]. Deut. 4:15-19; Luke 24:39; John 1:18; 4:24; Acts 17:29 [b]. 1 Kings 8:27; Ps. 139:7-10; 145:3; 147:5; Jer. 23:24; Rom.
Q. 5. Are there more Gods than one?
A. There is but one only [a], the living and true God [b].[a]. Deut. 6:4; Isa. 44:6; 45:21-22; 1 Cor. 8:4-6 [b]. Jer. 10:10; John 17:3; 1 Thess. 1:9; 1 John 5:20
Q. 6. How many persons are there in the Godhead?
A. There are three persons in the Godhead; the Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost [a]; and these three are one God, the same in substance, equal in power and glory. [b][a]. Matt. 3:16-17; 28:19; 2 Cor. 13:14; 1 Pet. 1:2 [b]. Ps. 45:6; John 1:1; 17:5; Acts 5:3-4; Rom. 9:5; Col. 2:9;
Q. 7. What are the decrees of God?
A. The decrees of God are, his eternal purpose, according to the counsel
of his will, whereby, for his own glory, he hath foreordained whatsoever
comes to pass [a].
Q. 8. How doth God execute his decrees?
A. God executeth his decrees in the works of creation and providence[a].[a]. Ps. 148:8; Isa. 40:26; Dan. 4:35; Acts 4:24-28; Rev. 4:11
Q. 9. What is the work of creation?
A. The work of creation is, God’s making all things of nothing, by the word of his power [a], in the space of six days, and all very good. [b][a]. Gen. 1:1; Ps. 33:6, 9; Heb. 11:3 [b]. Gen. 1:31
Q. 10. How did God create man?
A. God created man male and female, after his own image [a], in knowledge [b], righteousness, and holiness [c], with dominion over the
Q. 11. What are God’s works of providence?
A. God’s works of providence are, his most holy [a], wise [b], and powerful [c] preserving [d] and governing [e] all his creatures, and all
their actions [f].
Q. 12. What special act of providence did God exercise toward man in the estate wherein he was created?
A. When God had created man, he entered into a covenant of life with him, upon condition of perfect obedience; forbidding him to eat of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil, upon pain of death. [a][a]. Gen. 2:16-17; Jas. 2:10
Q. 13. Did our first parents continue in the estate wherein they were created?
A. Our first parents, being left to the freedom of their own will, fell from the estate wherein they were created, by sinning against God [a].[a]. Gen. 3:6-8, 13; 2 Cor. 11:3
Q. 14. What is sin?
A. Sin is any want of conformity unto, or transgression of, the law of God [a].[a]. Lev. 5:17; Jas. 4:17; 1 John 3:4
Q. 15. What was the sin whereby our first parents fell from the estate wherein they were created?
A. The sin whereby our first parents fell from the estate wherein thy were created, was their eating the forbidden fruit [a].[a]. Gen. 3:6
Q. 16. Did all mankind fall in Adam’s first transgression?
A. The covenant being made with Adam [a], not only for himself, but for
his posterity; all mankind, descending from him by ordinary generation,
sinned in him, and fell with him, in his first transgression [b].
Q. 17. Into what estate did the fall bring mankind?
A. The fall brought mankind into an estate of sin and misery [a].[a]. Gen. 3:16-19, 23; Rom. 3:16; 5:12; Eph. 2:1
Q. 18. Wherein consists the sinfulness of that estate whereinto man fell?
A. The sinfulness of that estate whereinto man fell, consists in the guilt of Adam’s first sin [a], the want of original righteousness [b], and the corruption of his whole nature [c], which is commonly called original sin; together with all actual transgressions which proceed
from it [d].
Q. 19. What is the misery of that estate whereinto man fell?
A. All mankind by their fall lost communion with God [a], are under his wrath [b] and curse [c], and so made liable to all miseries in this life [d], to death [e] itself, and to the pains of hell for ever [f].[a]. Gen. 3:8, 24; John 8:34, 42, 44; Eph. 2:12; 4:18 [b]. John 3:36; Rom. 1:18; Eph. 2:3; 5:6 [c]. Gal. 3:10; Rev. 22:3 [d]. Gen. 3:16-19; Job 5:7; Ecc. 2:22-23; Rom. 8:18-23 [e]. Ezek. 18:4; Rom. 5:12; 6:23 [f]. Matt. 25:41, 46; 2 Thess. 1:9; Rev. 14:9-11
Q. 20. Did God leave all mankind to perish in the estate of sin and misery?
A. God having, out of his mere good pleasure, from all eternity, elected some to everlasting life [a,] did enter into a covenant of grace, to deliver them out of the estate of sin and misery, and to bring them into an estate of salvation by a Redeemer [b].
Q. 21. Who is the Redeemer of God’s elect?
A. The only Redeemer of God’s elect is the Lord Jesus Christ [a], who, being the eternal Son of God [b], became man [c] and so was, and continueth to be, God and man in two distinct natures, and one person, forever [d].[a]. John 14:6; Acts 4:12; 1 Tim. 2:5-6 [b]. Ps. 2:7; Matt. 3:17; 17:5; John 1:18 [c]. Isa. 9:6; Matt. 1:23; John 1:14; Gal. 4:4 [d]. Acts 1:11; Heb. 7:24-25
Q. 22. How did Christ, being the Son of God, become man?
A. Christ, the Son of God, became man, by taking to himself a true body, and a reasonable soul [a], being conceived by the power of the Holy Ghost, in the womb of the virgin Mary, and born of her [b] yet without sin [c].[a]. Phil. 2:7; Heb. 2:14, 17 [b]. Luke 1:27, 31, 35 [c]. 2 Cor. 5:21; Heb. 4:15; 7:26; 1 John 3:5
Q. 23. What offices doth Christ execute as our Redeemer?
A. Christ, as our Redeemer, executeth the offices of a prophet [a], of a priest [b], and of a king [c], both in his estate of humiliation and exaltation.[a]. Deut. 18:18; Acts 2:33; 3:22-23; Heb. 1:1-2 [b]. Heb. 4:14-15; 5:5-6 [c]. Isa. 9:6-7; Luke 1:32-33; John 18:37; 1 Cor. 15:25
Q. 24. How doth Christ execute the office of a prophet?
A. Christ executeth the office of a prophet, in revealing to us, by his Word [a] and Spirit [b,] the will of God for our salvation [c].[a]. Luke 4:18-19, 21; Acts 1:1-2; Heb. 2:3 [b]. John 15:26-27; Acts 1:8; 1 Pet. 1:11 [c]. John 4:41-42; 20:30-31
Q. 25. How doth Christ execute the office of a priest?
A. Christ executeth the office of a priest, in his once offering up of himself a sacrifice to satisfy divine justice [a], and reconcile us to God [b]; and in making continual intercession for us [c].[a]. Isa. 53; Acts 8:32-35; Heb. 9:26-28; 10:12 [b]. Rom. 5:10-11; 2 Cor. 5:18; Col. 1:21-22 [c]. Rom. 8:34; Heb. 7:25; 9:24
Q. 26. How doth Christ execute the office of a king?
A. Christ executeth the office of a king, in subduing us to himself, in ruling and defending us [a], and in restraining and conquering all his
and our enemies [b].
Q. 27. Wherein did Christ’s humiliation consist?
A. Christ’s humiliation consisted in his being born, and that in a low condition [a], made under the law [b], undergoing the miseries of this life [c], the wrath of God [d], and the cursed death of the cross [e]; in being buried, and continuing under the power of death for a time. [f][a]. Luke 2:7; 2 Cor. 8:9; Gal. 4:4 [b]. Gal. 4:4 [c]. Isa. 53:3; Luke 9:58; John 4:6; 11:35; Heb. 2:18 [d]. Ps. 22:1 (Matt. 27:46); Isa. 53:10; 1 John 2:2 [e]. Gal. 3:13; Phil. 2:8 [f]. Matt. 12:40; 1 Cor. 15:3-4
Q. 28. Wherein consisteth Christ’s exaltation?
A. Christ’s exaltation consisteth in his rising again from the dead on the third day [a], in ascending up into heaven [b], in sitting at the
right hand [c] of God the Father, and in coming to judge the world at the last day [d].
Q. 29. How are we made partakers of the redemption purchased by Christ?
A. We are made partakers of the redemption purchased by Christ, by the effectual application of it to us by his Holy Spirit [a].[a]. Titus 3:4-7
Q. 30. How doth the Spirit apply to us the redemption purchased by Christ?
A. The Spirit applieth to us the redemption purchased by Christ, by working faith in us [a], and thereby uniting us to Christ in our
effectual calling [b].
Q. 31. What is effectual calling?
A. Effectual calling is the work of God’s Spirit, whereby, convincing us of our sin and misery, enlightening our minds in the knowledge of Christ [a], and renewing our wills [b], he doth persuade and enable us to embrace Jesus Christ [c], freely offered to us in the gospel [d].[a]. Acts 26:18; 1 Cor. 2:10, 12; 2 Cor. 4:6; Eph. 1:17-18 [b]. Deut. 30:6; Ezk. 36:26-27; John 3:5; Titus 3:5 [c]. John 6:44-45; Acts 16:14 [d]. Isa. 45:22; Matt. 11:28-30; Rev. 22:17
Q. 32. What benefits do they that are effectually called partake of in this life?
A. They that are effectually called do in this life partake of justification, adoption, and sanctification, and the several benefits which in this life do either accompany or flow from them [a].[a]. Rom. 8:30; 1 Cor. 1:30; 6:11; Eph. 1:5
Q. 33. What is justification?
A. Justification is an act of God’s free grace [a], wherein he pardoneth all our sins [b], and accepteth us as righteous in his sight [c], only
for the righteousness of Christ imputed to us [d], and received by faith alone [e].
Q. 34. What is adoption?
A. Adoption is an act of God’s free grace [a], whereby we are received into the number, and have a right to all the privileges, of the sons of God [b].[a]. 1 John 3:1 [b]. John 1:12; Rom. 8:17
Q. 35. What is sanctification?
A. Sanctification is the work of God’s free grace [a], whereby we are renewed in the whole man after the image of God [b], and are enabled more and more to die unto sin, and live unto righteousness [c].[a]. Ezk. 36:27; Phil. 2:13; 2 Thess. 2:13 [b]. 2 Cor. 5:17; Eph. 4:23-24; 1 Thess. 5:23 [c]. Ezek. 36:25-27; Rom. 6:4, 6, 12-14; 2 Cor. 7:1; 1 Pet. 2:24
Q. 36. What are the benefits which in this life do accompany or flow
from justification, adoption, and sanctification?
A. The benefits which in this life do accompany or flow from justification, adoption, and sanctification, are, assurance of God’s love [a], peace of conscience [b], joy in the Holy Ghost [c], increase of grace [d], and perseverance therein to the end [e].[a]. Rom. 5:5 [b]. Rom. 5:1 [c]. Rom. 14:17 [d]. 2 Pet. 3:18 [e]. Phil. 1:6; 1 Pet. 1:5
Q. 37. What benefits do believers receive from Christ at death?
A. The souls of believers are at their death made perfect in holiness [a], and do immediately pass into glory [b]; and their bodies, being
still united to Christ [c], do rest in their graves till the resurrection [d].
Q. 38. What benefits do believers receive from Christ at the resurrection?
A. At the resurrection, believers being raised up in glory [a], shall be openly acknowledged and acquitted in the day of judgment [b], and made perfectly blessed in the full enjoying of God [c] to all eternity [d].[a]. I Cor. 15:42-43 [b]. Matt. 25:33-34, 46 [c]. Rom. 8:29; 1 John 3:2 [d]. Ps. 16:11; 1 Thess. 4:17
Q. 39. What is the duty which God requireth of man?
A. The duty which God requireth of man, is obedience to his revealed will [a].[a]. Deut. 29:29; Mic. 6:8; 1 John 5:2-3
Q. 40. What did God at first reveal to man for the rule of his obedience?
A. The rule which God at first revealed to man for his obedience, was the moral law [a].[a]. Rom. 2:14-15; 10:5
Q. 41. Wherein is the moral law summarily comprehended?
A. The moral law is summarily comprehended in the ten commandments [a].[a]. Deut. 4:13; Matt. 19:17-19
Q. 42. What is the sum of the ten commandments?
A. The sum of the ten commandments is, To love the Lord our God with all our heart, with all our soul, with all our strength, and with all our mind; and our neighbour as ourselves [a].[a]. Matt. 22:37-40
Q. 43. What is the preface to the ten commandments?
A. The preface to the ten commandments is in these words, I am the Lord thy God, which have brought thee out of the land of Egypt, out of the house of bondage. [a][a]. Ex. 20:2; Deut. 5:6
Q. 44. What doth the preface to the ten commandments teach us?
A. The preface to the ten commandments teacheth us, That because God is the Lord, and our God, and Redeemer, therefore we are bound to keep all his commandments [a].[a]. Luke 1:74-75; 1 Pet. 1:14-19
Q. 45. Which is the first commandment?
A. The first commandment is, Thou shalt have no other gods before me.[a][a]. Ex. 20:3; Deut. 5:7
Q. 46. What is required in the first commandment?
A. The first commandment requireth us to know and acknowledge God to be the only true God, and our God; and to worship and glorify him accordingly [a].[a]. I Chron. 28:9; Isa. 45:20-25; Matt. 4:10
Q. 47. What is forbidden in the first commandment?
A. The first commandment forbiddeth the denying [a], or not worshipping and glorifying the true God as God [b], and our God [c]; and the giving of that worship and glory to any other, which is due to him alone [d].[a]. Ps. 14:1 [b]. Rom. 1:20-21 [c]. Ps. 81:10-11 [d]. Ezek. 8:16-18; Rom. 1:25
Q. 48. What are we specially taught by these words, “before me,” in the first commandment?
A. These words, before me, in the first commandment teach us, that God, who seeth all things, taketh notice of, and is much displeased
with, the sin of having any other God [a].
Q. 49. Which is the second commandment?
A. The second commandment is, Thou shalt not make unto thee any graven image, or any likeness of anything that is in heaven above, or that is in the earth beneath, or that is in the water under the earth: thou shalt not bow down thy self to them, nor serve them: for I the Lord thy God am a jealous God, visiting the iniquity of the fathers upon the children unto the third and fourth generation of them that hate me; and showing mercy unto thousands of them that love me, and keep my commandments. [a][a]. Ex. 20:4-6; Deut. 5:8-10
Q. 50. What is required in the second commandment?
A. The second commandment requireth the receiving, observing, and keeping pure and entire, all such religious worship and ordinances as God hath appointed in his Word [a].[a]. Deut. 12:32; Matt. 28:20
Q. 51. What is forbidden in the second commandment?
A. The second commandment forbiddeth the worshipping of God by images [a], or any other way not appointed in his Word [b].[a]. Deut. 4:15-19; Rom. 1:22-23 [b]. Lev. 10:1-2; Jer. 19:4-5; Col. 2:18-23
Q. 52. What are the reasons annexed to the second commandment?
A. The reasons annexed to the second commandment are, God’s sovereignty over us [a], his propriety in us [b], and the zeal he hath to his own worship [c].[a]. Ps. 95:2-3, 6-7; 96:9-10 [b]. Ex. 19:5; Ps. 45:11; Isa. 54:5 [c]. Ex. 34:14; ICor. 10:22
Q. 53. Which is the third commandment?
A. The third commandment is, Thou shalt not take the name of the Lord thy God in vain; for the Lord will not hold him guiltless that taketh his name in vain. [a][a]. Ex. 20:7; Deut. 5:11
Q. 54. What is required in the third commandment?
A. The third commandment requireth the holy and reverend use of God’s names, titles [a], attributes [b], ordinances [c], Word [d], and works[e].[a]. Deut. 10:20; Ps. 29:2; Matt. 6:9 [b]. 1 Chron. 29:10-13; Rev. 15:3-4 [c]. Acts 2:42; 1 Cor. 11:27-28 [d]. Ps. 138:2; Rev. 22:18-19 [e]. Ps. 107:21-22; Rev. 4:11
Q. 55. What is forbidden in the third commandment?
A. The third commandment forbiddeth all profaning or abusing of anything whereby God maketh himself known [a].[a]. Lev. 19:12; Matt. 5:33-37; Jas. 5:12
Q. 56. What is the reason annexed to the third commandment?
A. The reason annexed to the third commandment is, that however the breakers of this commandment may escape punishment from men, yet the Lord our God will not suffer them to escape his righteous judgment [a].[a]. Deut. 28:58-59; 1 Sam. 3:13; 4:11
Q. 57. Which is the fourth commandment?
A. The fourth commandment is, Remember the sabbath day, to keep it holy. Six days shalt thou labor, and do all thy work; but the seventh day is the sabbath of the Lord thy God: in it thou shalt not do any work, thou, nor thy son, nor thy daughter, thy manservant, nor thy maidservant, nor thy cattle, nor thy stranger that is within thy gates. For in six days the Lord made heaven and earth, the sea, and all that in them is, and rested the seventh day: wherefore the Lord blessed the sabbath day, and hallowed it. [a][a]. Ex. 20:8-11; Deut. 5:12-15
Q. 58. What is required in the fourth commandment?
A. The fourth commandment requireth the keeping holy to God such set times as he hath appointed in his Word; expressly one whole day in seven, to be a holy sabbath to himself [a].[a]. Ex. 31:13, 16-17
Q. 59. Which day of the seven hath God appointed to be the weekly
A. From the beginning of the world to the resurrection of Christ, God appointed the seventh day of the week to be the weekly sabbath [a]; and the first day of the week ever since, to continue to the end of the world, which is the Christian sabbath [b].[a]. Gen. 2:2-3; Ex. 20:11 [b]. Mark 2:27-28; Acts 20:7; 1 Cor. 16:2; Rev. 1:10
Q. 60. How is the sabbath to be sanctified?
A. The sabbath is to be sanctified by a holy resting all that day, even from such worldly employments and recreations as are lawful on other days [a]; and spending the whole time in the public and private exercises of God’s worship [b], except so much as is to be taken up in the works of necessity and mercy [c].[a]. Ex. 20:10; Neh. 13:15-22; Isa. 58:13-14 [b]. Ex. 20:8; Lev. 23:3; Luke 4:16; Acts 20:7 [c]. Matt. 12:1-13
Q. 61. What is forbidden in the fourth commandment?
A. The fourth commandment forbiddeth the omission or careless performance of the duties required, and the profaning the day by
idleness, or doing that which is in itself sinful, or by unnecessary thoughts, words, or works, about our worldly employments or recreations [a].
Q. 62. What are the reasons annexed to the fourth commandment?
A. The reasons annexed to the fourth commandment are, God’s allowing us six days of the week for our own employments [a], his challenging a special propriety in the seventh, his own example, and his blessing the sabbath day [b].[a]. Ex. 20:9; 31:15; Lev. 23:3 [b]. Gen. 2:2-3; Ex. 20:11; 31:17
Q. 63. Which is the fifth commandment?
A. The fifth commandment is, Honour thy father and thy mother; that thy days may be long upon the land which the Lord thy God giveth thee.[a][a]. Ex. 20:12; Deut. 5:16
Q. 64. What is required in the fifth commandment?
A. The fifth commandment requireth the preserving the honor, and performing the duties, belonging to everyone in their several places and relations, as superiors, inferiors, or equals [a].[a]. Rom. 13:1, 7; Eph. 5:21-22, 24; 6:1, 4-5, 9; 1 Pet. 2:17
Q. 65. What is forbidden in the fifth commandment?
A. The fifth commandment forbiddeth the neglecting of, or doing anything against, the honor and duty which belongeth to everyone in their several places and relations [a].[a]. Matt. 15:4-6; Rom. 13:8
Q. 66. What is the reason annexed to the fifth commandment?
A. The reason annexed to the fifth commandment is, a promise of long life and prosperity (as far as it shall serve for God’s glory and their own good) to all such as keep this commandment [a].[a]. Ex. 20:12; Deut. 5:16; Eph. 6:2-3
Q. 67. Which is the sixth commandment?
A. The sixth commandment is, Thou shalt not kill. [a][a]. Ex. 20:13; Deut. 5:17
Q. 68. What is required in the sixth commandment?
A. The sixth commandment requireth all lawful endeavors to preserve our own life, and the life of others [a].[a]. Eph. 5:28-29
Q. 69. What is forbidden in the sixth commandment?
A. The sixth commandment forbiddeth the taking away of our own life, or the life of our neighbour, unjustly, or whatsoever tendeth thereunto[a].[a]. Gen. 9:6; Matt. 5:22; 1 John 3:15
Q. 70. Which is the seventh commandment?
A. The seventh commandment is, Thou shalt not commit adultery.[a][a]. Ex. 20:14; Deut. 5:18
Q. 71. What is required in the seventh commandment?